What Are The Effects Of A Huge Meteor Hitting
The Earth In The Pacific Ocean?
Category A

New Mexico High School
Supercomputing Challenge
Final Report
April 7, 1999

Team 001B

Alamogordo High School
 
 
 

Team Member
Ian Sturdevant

Teachers
Mr Albert Simon
Ms Claire Tinguely

Project Mentor
Reese Sturdevant
 
 
 
 

Table of Contents

Executive Summary.

1. Introduction.

2. Project Description.

3. Results.

4. Conclusions.

5. Recommendations.

6. Acknowledgements.

7. Reference List.

Appendix A - Simulation Results.

Appendix B - Programming Flowcharts.

Appendix C - Computer Program Source Code.

Appendix D - Detailed Models.
 


Executive Summary

Programming. The complete computer program integrated an input routine and routines to model each project phase. Meteor and location parameters were entered through the input routine. The Phase 1, Phase 2, and Phase 3 routines were performed to provide the impact kinetic energy, the maximum tsunami surge inland, and the flood depth in the city as outputs.
2.1 Program Research and Development. During this project, it became desirable to split the project into three phases. Splitting up this project into three phases helped clear up exactly what had to be done for each part of the project. It also helped make programming easier in that the program could be split up, making it easier to see what was missing or wrong in the program. The following phases seemed to be the natural phases of the project:
Model
Equation
Details
Meteor Volume (m3)
Section D.1.1, page D-1
Meteor Mass (kg)
Section D.1.2, page D-1
Meteor Initial Kinetic Energy (joules)
Section D.1.3, page D-1
Atmospheric Energy Losses (joules)
Section D.1.4, page D-2
Inelastic Collision (Gigatons)
Section D.1.5, page D-2
These models are completely described in section D.1 of Appendix D Detailed Models.

2.1.1.2 Programming. The previously described models were coded into the Phase 1 routine in the computer program. This routine was written in C and required the meteor radius, velocity, and density as inputs. A flowchart describing the Phase 1 code is shown in Figure B-1 on page B-1 of Appendix B.

First, the program computes the volume of a sphere using the meteor radius. Then, the volume and the density of the meteor are combined to model the meteor's mass.

Model
Equation
Details
Distance From The Impact Site To The Shore (km)
Haversine Model
Section D.2.1, page D-2
Ocean Depth (m)
Etopo5 Model
Section D.2.2, page D-3
Wave Propagation (m), deep water impact
Section D.2.3, page D-3
Wave Propagation (m), shallow water impact
Section D.2.3, page D-3
Peak amplitude of surface wave (m)
Section D.2.4, page D-3
2.1.3.1 Research and Development. There were 4 models required to complete this phase. They are:
Model
Equation
Details
Shoreline depth (m)
Section D.3.1, page D-4
Maximum Tsunami Surge Inland (km)
Section D.3.2, page D-4
Distance between shore and city (km)
Haversine Model
Section D.3.3, page D-4
Flood depth in city (m)
Section D.3.4, page D-5
These models are completely described in section D.3 of Appendix D Detailed Models.

2.1.3.2 Phase 3 Programming. The previously described models were coded into the Phase 3 routine in the computer program. This routine required the peak amplitude of the surface wave modeled in Phase 2, the shoreline latitude and longitude, and the city latitude and longitude as inputs. A flowchart describing the Phase 3 code is shown in Figure B-3 on page B-3 of Appendix B.

The peak amplitude from phase two was applied to the tsunami runup to determine the shoreline height of the tsunami. The tsunami height at the shore was then used to determine the maximum tsunami surge inland. The shoreline longitude and latitude were combined with the city latitude and longitude to find the distance from the shore to the city using the Haversine model.
The distance from the shore to the city, the maximum tsunami surge inland, and the tsunami height at the shore are all used to determine the flood depth in the city. Phase 3 outputs are the maximum tsunami surge inland and the flood depth in the city.
The code for this phase is in Appendix C on pages C-12 through C-13.

2.2 Program Synthesis. Figure 1 presents a flowchart of the complete computer program integrating the three program phases with an input routine. Meteor and location parameters were entered through the input routine. The Phase 1, Phase 2, and Phase 3 routines were performed to provide the impact kinetic energy, the maximum tsunami surge inland, and the flood depth in the city as outputs.


Figure 1. Simplified Program Block Diagram

Table 1. Selected City and Shoreline Locations

 
City
City Location
Shoreline Location
 
Latitude
Longitude
Latitude
Longitude
Los Angeles
34.05
-118.24
33.97
-118.24
San Francisco
37.78
-122.41
37.78
-122.41
Honolulu
21.31
-157.86
21.31
-157.86
Tokyo
35.70
139.77
35.70
140.67
Seattle
47.61
-122.34
47.61
-122.34

Table 2. Meteor Parameter Values


 
       
Impact Location
Value
Density (kg/m)
Radius (m)
Velocity (m/sec)
Latitude (deg)
Longitude (deg)
1
    3028.1
200
10000
-15.0
-165.0
2
5440.0
500
20000
30.0
-165.0
3
7300.0
1000
30000
30.0
-125.0
4
---
---
---
37.5
-147.5
3. Results. By combining the values in Tables 1 and 2, a total of 480 scenarios were designed and tested. These tests produce a very large number of results which are reported in Appendix A.
Table 3. Typical Impact Scenario and Results

 
Impact Parameters
Meteor Parameters
Results
City
Shore/City
Distance (km)
Distance1
(km)
Density
(kg/m3)
Radius
(m)
Velocity
(m/sec)
KE2
(Gton)
Flood3 Surge (km)
Flood Depth (m)
Los Angeles, CA
9.16
2657.28
7300.0
200.0
10000.0
2.877
3.909
0.000
Tokyo, Japan
81.22
6246.15
7300.0
200.0
10000.0
2.877
1.254
0.000
Seattle, WA
104.89
2232.75
7300.0
200.0
10000.0
2.877
4.927
0.000
San Francisco, CA
0.46
2201.31
7300.0
200.0
10000.0
2.877
5.021
25.435
Honolulu, HI
0.07
2056.83
7300.0
200.0
10000.0
2.877
5.496
27.509
1Distance from meteor impact to shoreline 2Kinetic energy of meteor on impact 3Maximum distance inland flood surges