CTG - HTML

Overview
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Login Procedure
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Unix
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Java
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  [Tutorial - Unix]
  [Tutorial - PC]
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Graphics
  [gnuplot]
  [Tutorial]

Extras
  [Cygwin-X11]
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Supercomputing Challenge
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  [Technical Guide]

HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is the language of the World Wide Web (WWW). It is relatively easy to use and has a short learning curve.

You can create web pages on mode using a text editor such as pico, and post them to the web via your mode account by following the instructions below.

Here is what the code of a bare-bones web page created with pico looks like:

The above code will produce an empty web page as seen below:


Now let's learn something about HTML code. The first thing to note is that the language relies heavily on what are known as "tags". For example, the tags that denote the start and end of an HTML document are <html> and </html>. Everything between the start and end "html" tags is considered to be part of the HTML document.

Let's expirement with the "title" and "body" tags by placing some text between the start and end tags of each type:

Take a look at the results:

Notice that the text that is between the "title" tags appears in the blue bar on the top of the browser window - the title of your web page. The text that was entered between the "body" tags appears in the main window of the web browser.


Now, let's learn about many other HTML tags and their use. Then we will incorporate them into our source code and show what a web browser would display.

  • <html> source code text </html> - Indicates start and end of an HTML document

  • <head> heading information </head> - Indicates start and end of heading information

  • <title> document title </title> - Contains the document title, displayed in web browser's titlebar

  • <body> document body </body> - Contains the main contents to be displayed in web browser

  • <p> paragraph of text </p> - Defines one paragraph of text; ending tag optional

  • <br> - Inserts a line break; no ending tag

  • <hr> - Inserts a horizontal rule; no ending tag

  • <b> bolded text </b> - Text between tags will appear bold

  • <i> italicized text </i> - Text between tags will appear in italics

  • <a href="URL_or_path_relative_to_web_page/file_name.html"> hyperlink </a> - Text between tags will link to URL or html file on your mode account

  • <img src="path_relative_to_web_page/file_name.gif(jpg)"> - Inserts specified image file on your mode account into page; no ending tag

Now let's incorporate some of these new tags into our web page; you should be able to figure out their usage.

And the results ...

One interesting thing to note from above is the use of "White Space". All combinations of white space (spaces, returns, and tabs) are considered to be one blank space! That is why we must explictly enter in line breaks and paragraph breaks with tags. Note how this is demonstrated above.


Finally, to post web pages via mode, make sure you place your HTML source code inside of your public_html directory on your mode account. For example, say you have made a web page containing your final report called "final.html", and it is located within your public_html directory. To view it over the web, simply point your web browser to: http://mode.lanl.k12.nm.us/~ch099abc/final.html , where ch099abc is your login name.

Note, if you point your web browser to http://mode.lanl.k12.nm.us/~ch099abc , it will by default display a file called "index.html". In order to view this page, you will need to create and place it into your public_html directory. This will be the first page users come to see your work on the Internet. You should make this file a easily navigated page that allows the visitor to see your work, as well as your Challenge related interests and activities.


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